Below you will find the synopsis of marked OT quotations in the synoptic gospels. The drop-down menus above the table describe the methodology for the table and explain its color scheme and functions.

Introduction

This table illustrates the distribution of marked quotations of Jewish Scripture in the synoptic gospels. Marked quotations are those that include an introductory formula or some kind of marking indicating the quotation stems from Scripture. A simple indication of speech does not fulfill this criterion. This has the effect that more obvious citations of Scripture, even those embedded in a character’s speech, such as Jesus’ last words (Mt 27:46 || Mk 15:34 || cf. Lk 23:46), are listed with scriptural allusions. In contrast to marked quotations, allusions refer to those occurrences where a phrase from Scripture is embedded in the gospel text without an explicit marking (see further Phillip A. Davis, Jr, The Place of Paideia in Hebrews’ Moral Thought, WUNT 2/475 [Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2018], 143-44 n. 3) and will thus be found in the allusions table.

Methodology

In order to build the table, all those citations of Scripture marked by italics in the NA28 or in bold in Huck and Greeven’s Synopsis of the First Three Gospels (13th ed.; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1981) were noted and then allocated to either the marked quotations table or the allusions table based on the definitions explained above. Fortunately, the identification of the marked quotations presented in the table is fairly uncontroversial, and so, unlike the allusions table, little justification is required for viewing the instances here as citations of Scripture. As noted in the introduction, however, the strict focus on the marking of the quotation might lead to some surprising inclusions or exclusions.

Nonetheless, for the question of synoptic relations, it is useful to consider what appeals to Scripture might have been more easily recognized by a later author in the process of rewriting a previous gospel, and the explicit marking of a quotation certainly makes a citation more obvious. On this basis we can ask, for example, whether marked quotations are treated differently by a supposedly later gospel writer than the allusions, and whether this is due to the marking. (On this see Phillip A. Davis, Jr., “Marcion’s Gospel and its Use of the Jewish Scriptures,” forthcoming.)

The quotations table thus reflects a consistent focus on the introductory marking of Scriptural references. This has the effect that several Matthean verses appear in the table that do not recognizably quote any known Scriptural text (i.e., Mt 2:23; 5:31; 5:33). Because these instances nevertheless introduce content with phrases Matthew elsewhere uses to refer to scripture, it seemed best to take Matthew seriously and offer several possible references introduced in the table with “cf.” This is only not the case for Mt 5:43; in that case we have limited ourselves to the known reference to Lev 19:18 and remained agnostic about the possible reference for “hate your enemy” which only comes after the more obvious quotation of Lev 19.

The Scriptural texts listed for each entry are as a rule widely recognized as the text, or the possible texts, quoted in each case. These references thus largely correspond with the cross-references listed in the margins of the NA28, the footnotes of the Aland synopsis, or the margins of Huck and Greeven’s synopsis. However, not every parallel text those sources offer for a quotation has been included here; this is due to the fact that the parallels listed for a given verse or line in these sources often stretch beyond offering evidence for the relevant quotation and may point to thematic or verbal parallels beyond the question of the quotation’s source.

In two cases, Mt 2:23 and 27:9-10, users are encouraged to consult the discussions in Maarten J.J. Menken, Matthew’s Bible: The Old Testament Text of the Evangelist, BETL 176 (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2004), pages 161-77 and 190, respectively. In these cases we have relied on Menken’s discussion to decide upon which texts to list.

Reading the Table

The quotations table is colored to reflect the differences and similarities between the synoptics’ use of quotations. The coloring follows the scheme recommended in Mark Goodacre, The Synoptic Problem: A Way Through the Maze (London: T&T Clark, 2001), 33-35:

  • Blue represents material unique to Matthew
  • Red represents material unique to Mark
  • Yellow (or yellow highlighting) represents material unique to Luke.
These colors can be mixed to reflect overlapping material between the gospels:
  • Brown represents material shared by all three synoptics
  • Purple represents material shared by Matthew and Mark
  • Green represents material shared by Matthew and Luke
  • Orange represents material shared by Mark and Luke.

The table makes detailed use of these colors. The color of each cell generally shows which gospel(s) include(s) a given quotation. In these cases the text in each cell is black. However, in many instances the table reflects a more complex situation. It is frequently the case that where gospels share a given passage or context, they differ in their use of a quotation. For example, Matthew several times includes quotations in contexts present in Mark and/or Luke, as for example in Mt 8:17. That cell is colored brown because the context is shared by all three, but the text of the cell is blue because only Matthew includes a quotation.

In still other cases, we included cells that due to a certain complexity simply suggest comparing the synoptic parallel, such as in Mk 15:28 v.l. Luke’s versions of three of Matthew’s antitheses (Lk 6:27-28, 29-30; 16:18) is another example. Luke’s content overlaps with Matthew’s, but neverthless each lacks the quotation found in Matthew. That situation seemed worth noting by means of “cf.” A final example is the reference to the desolating sacrilege in Mt 24:15. We have added a “cf.” for Mark and Luke because in neither of those gospels is the quotation introduced as Scripture as it is in Matthew, but in both instances some sort of reference can be detected, that is, as an allusion. However, it seemed ideal here to make clear in this table that the situation is more complex than Matthew simply including a quotation not present in Mark and Luke, without the user being forced to compare the quotations table with the allusions table, where the depiction is completely reversed.

Interacting with the Table A couple of interactive functions are available for the table. You can search the entire table by using the search field to the top right of the table. Or, you can search each column individually in the search field at the bottom of the table under each column. If you want to focus on one of the gospels in particular, the entries for each column can be sorted in ascending or descending order by clicking on the arrow buttons in each column heading.

Synopsis of Marked OT Quotations in the Synoptic Gospels

MtMkLk
1:23
(Isa 7:14)
2:6
(2 Sam 5:2;
1 Chr 11:2;
Mic 5:1, 3)
2:23
(Exod 13:2, 12-13, 15; 34:19;
Num 18:15;
cf. 1 Sam 1:24)
2:24
(Lev 5:11; 12:8; cf. 14:22
Num 6:10)
2:15
(Hos 11:1)
2:18
(Jer 31:15 [Jer 38:15 LXX])
2:23
(cf. Judg 13:5, 7; 16:17;
Isa 4:3; 7:14; 11:1; 42:6 [MT]; 49:6 [MT];
Jer 31:6 [MT])
Cf. Mt 11:101:2
(Exod 23:20;
Mal 3:1)
Cf. Lk 7:27
3:3
(Isa 40:3)
1:3
(Isa 40:3)
3:4
(Isa 40:3)
3:5-6
(Isa 40:4-5)
4:4
(Deut 8:3)
4:4
(Deut 8:3)
4:6
(Ps 91:11-12 [Ps 90:11-12 LXX])
4:10-11
(Ps 91:11-12 [Ps 90:11-12 LXX])
4:7
(Deut 6:16)
4:12
(Deut 6:16)
4:10
(Deut 6:13; 10:20; cf. 5:9)
4:8
(Deut 6:13; 10:20; cf. 5:9)
4:15-16
(Isa 8:23-9:1; cf. Ps 107:10 [Ps 106:10 LXX])
4:18-19
(Isa 58:6; 61:1-2a)
5:21
(Exod 20:13 [Exod 20:15 LXX];
Deut 5:17 [Deut 5:18 LXX])
5:27
(Exod 20:14 [Exod 20:13 LXX];
Deut 5:18 [Deut 5:17 LXX])
5:31
(cf. Deut 24:1)
Cf. Lk 16:18
5:33
(cf. Exod 20:7;
Lev 19:12;
Num 30:3;
Deut 5:11; 23:22;
Ps 50:14 [Ps 49:14 LXX];
cf. Sir 23:9-11)
5:38
(Exod 21:24;
Lev 24:20;
Deut 19:21)
Cf. Lk 6:29-30
5:43
(Lev 19:18)
Cf. Lk 6:27-28
8:17
(Isa 53:4)
9:13
(Hos 6:6)
11:10
(Exod 23:20;
Mal 3:1;
cf. Mt 3:3)
Cf. Mk 1:27:27
(Exod 23:20;
Mal 3:1;
cf. Lk 3:4-6)
12:7
(Hos 6:6)
12:18-21
(Isa 42:1-4)
13:14-15
(Isa 6:9-10)
13:35
(Ps 78:2 [Ps 77:2 LXX])
15:4
(Exod 20:12; 21:17 [Exod 21:16 LXX];
Lev 20:9;
Deut 5:16)
7:10
(Exod 20:12; 21:17 [Exod 21:16 LXX];
Lev 20:9;
Deut 5:16)
15:8-9
(Isa 29:13)
7:6-7
(Isa 29:13)
19:4
(Gen 1:27; 5:2)
Cf. 10:6
(Gen 1:27; 5:2)
19:5
(Gen 2:24)
Cf. 10:7
(Gen 2:24)
19:18-19a
(Exod 20:12-16;
Deut 5:16-20)
10:19
(Exod 20:12-16;
Deut 5:16-20; 24:14;
Sir 4:1)
18:20
(Exod 20:12-16;
Deut 5:16-20)
19:19b
(Lev 19:18)
21:5
(Isa 62:11;
Zech 9:9)
21:13
(Isa 56:7;
Jer 7:11)
11:17
(Isa 56:7;
Jer 7:11)
19:46
(Isa 56:7;
Jer 7:11)
21:16
(Ps 8:3)
21:42a
(Ps 118:22-23 [Ps 117:22-23 LXX])
12:10
(Ps 118:22 [Ps 117:22 LXX])
20:17
(Ps 118:22 [Ps 117:22 LXX])
21:42b
(Ps 118:23 [Ps 117:23 LXX])
12:11
(Ps 118:23 [Ps 117:23 LXX])
22:24
(Gen 38:8;
Deut 25:5)
12:19
(Gen 38:8;
Deut 25:5)
20:28
(Gen 38:8;
Deut 25:5)
22:32
(Exod 3:6)
12:26
(Exod 3:6)
20:37
(Exod 3:6, 15-16)
12:29, 32
(Deut 6:4)
22:37
(Deut 6:5;
cf. 2 Kgs 23:25)
12:30, 33a
(Deut 6:5;
cf. 2 Kgs 23:25)
10:27a
(Deut 6:5;
cf. 2 Kgs 23:25)
22:39
(Lev 19:18)
12:31, 33b
(Lev 19:18)
10:27b
(Lev 19:18)
22:44
(Ps 110:1 [Ps 109:1 LXX])
12:36
(Ps 110:1 [Ps 109:1 LXX])
20:42-43
(Ps 110:1 [Ps 109:1 LXX])
24:15
(Dan 9:27; 11:31; 12:11;
cf. 1 Macc 1:54)
Cf. 13:14
(Dan 9:27; 11:31; 12:11;
cf. 1 Macc 1:54)
Cf. 21:20
26:31
(Zech 13:7)
14:27
(Zech 13:7)
Cf. 15:28 v.l.22:37
(Isa 53:12)
27:9-10
(Zech 11:13;
cf. Exod 9:12 et passim;
Jer 32:6-15 [Jer 39:6-15 LXX])

If you want to reset your custom sorting of the table (or in case something went TERRIBLY wrong) just hit the reset button on the right hand side: